Dry mouth: Causes, symptoms, and treatment

Dry mouth is a symptom that leads to a lack of saliva. Individuals with dry mouth do not have enough saliva to keep the mouth wet.

The condition is also informally known as xerostomia, pasties, cottonmouth, drooth, doughmouth, or des.

This article will look at the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of dry mouth.

Fast facts on dry mouth

Here are some key points about dry mouth. More detail and supporting information is in the main article.

Dry mouth is more prevalent in the aging population

It is commonly a side effect of medications.

Symptoms include cracked lips, bad breath, and sticky saliva

Individuals with dry mouth should avoid spicy foods and sugary drinks


[Pile of pills in packs]
Dry mouth is often a side effect of pharmaceutical drugs.

Possible causes include:

Medications: Many prescription and OTC medications cause dry mouth, including antihistamines, decongestants, hypertensive medications (for high blood pressure), antidiarrheals, muscle relaxants, urinary continence drugs, some Parkinson’s disease medications, as well as a number of antidepressants.

Age: Even though dry mouth is not a natural part of aging, older adults tend to take more medications than the rest of the population. Many of the medications taken by seniors cause dry mouth.

Cancer treatment: Radiotherapy (radiation therapy) to the head and neck can damage the salivary glands, resulting in less saliva being produced. Chemotherapy can alter the nature of the saliva, as well as how much of it the body produces.

Injury or surgery: This can result in nerve damage to the head and neck area can result in dry mouth.

Tobacco: Either chewing or smoking tobacco increases the risk of dry mouth symptoms.

Dehydration: This is caused by lack of sufficient fluids.

Exercising or playing in the heat: The salivary glands may become dry as bodily fluids are concentrated elsewhere in the body. Dry mouth symptoms are more likely if the exercise or playing continues for a long time.

Some health conditions, illnesses, and habits can cause dry mouth, such as:

anxiety disorders



Parkinson’s disease

poorly controlled diabetes

Sjögren’s syndrome

sleeping with the mouth open


stroke and Alzheimer’s disease, although these are more likely to cause a perception of dry mouth even when the salivary glands are functioning appropriately

[Close up male mouth with moustache]
Often, xerostomia is treated by addressing the underlying causes.

Treatment for dry mouth depends on several factors such as whether the patient has an underlying condition or disease, or is taking certain medications that may be causing dry mouth.

If an underlying cause is found, steps need to be taken to minimize its effect.

Medications: If the dry mouth is thought to be caused by a particular medication, the doctor will either alter the dosage or prescribe another drug which is less likely to cause dry mouth.

Stimulating saliva production: Medication may be prescribed to stimulate the production of saliva, such as pilocarpine (Salagen) or cevimeline (Evoxac).

Experts say that symptomatic treatment for dry mouth typically includes four areas:

increasing the flow of saliva

replacing lost secretions

controlling dental caries

specific measures, such as treating infections

A person with dry mouth should pay special attention to oral/dental hygiene. This includes plaque removal and treatment of gingival infections, inflammation, and dental caries. Brushing teeth and flossing regularly is important.


The doctor or dentist will probably examine the patient’s mouth and review their medical history. Blood tests and imaging scans of the salivary glands may also be ordered.

Sialometry: This is a simple procedure that measures the flow rate of saliva. Collection devices are placed over duct orifices of the saliva glands, and saliva production is stimulated with citric acid.

Saliography: This is a radiographic examination of the salivary glands and ducts. It may be useful in identifying salivary gland stones and masses.

Biopsy: A small sample of salivary gland tissue is taken. Often used in the diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome. If malignancy (cancer) is suspected, the doctor may also order a biopsy.

Many doctors report that often, even though the patient complains of severe dry mouth, the oral mucosa appears to be moist. Less frequently, it may be the other way round – the oral mucosa appears dry, but the individual does not complain of dry mouth symptoms.

What is xerostomia?

[Close up old woman mouth]
Xerostomia can have a number of effects on general health and well-being.

Dry mouth is sometimes referred to as xerostomia.

Experts say that xerostomia is usually caused by inadequate function of the salivary glands.

An individual with xerostomia typically finds it harder to enjoy food.

Xerostomia is a common problem. It is a frequent side effect of medication, which may improve with a new prescription or an adjustment of dosage.

We all get a dry mouth sometimes – when we are upset, under stress, or extremely frightened. Xerostomia is different – the individual’s mouth is dry most of the time.

Some patients may think dry mouth is a normal part of aging, but it is not. It is, however, more commonly found in older adults. Experts say the main reason is that elderly people take more medications compared with the rest of the population, and some of these medications cause xerostomia.

Xerostomia may be a symptom of a serious systemic disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, amyloidosis, Sjögren’s syndrome, Parkinson’s, Diabetes, or hypothyroidism. A systemic disease is one that affects the entire body.

Dry mouth is not a disease but a symptom of other conditions.

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